Children start to develop an understanding of numbers within 10 becoming familiar with combining the same number together up to 10. Eg 1+1 = 2, 2 + 2 = 10, etc.
Children learn how to add and subtract number facts up to 20, becoming familiar with all the different combinations, such as: 1+9=10, 14+3=17, 16+4=20, etc.
Children will consolidate their knowledge on number facts up to 20 and be able to learn them off by heart.
As well as this, they will learn that number bonds to 20 are related to number facts up to 100, e.g. 4+6=10 is the same as 40+60=100.
Multiplication and division for the 2, 5 and 10 times tables are introduced in Year 2.
Added to the 2, 5 and 10 times tables, Year 3 children learn multiplication and division facts for the 3, 4 and 8 times tables.
They will also be taught that there is a connection between the 2, 4 and 8 times tables through doubling and halving, e.g. 2x4=4 so 4x4=8.
The 6, 7, 9, 11 and 12 times tables are introduced to Year 4 students which finalises their multiplication and division knowledge. They will learn the handy finger trick for learning the 9 times table by holding down the correct finger that corresponds to the numbers 1-10 and counting the other fingers on the other sides to get the correct answer. For example, to work out 5x9, hold down your fifth finger (thumb) to get 45.
Year 5 & 6:
In the last two years of KS2, children reinforce their knowledge on the multiplication and division process and practise recalling the timetables to improve their memory.